ARTYKUŁY / ARTICLES
Zabytki na rynku nieruchomości, s. 367-374
The Historical Real Estate Market
The dynamic development of the real estate market is associated with the emergence of market mechanisms, the constitutional protection of ownership rights, and the intensification of rivatisation. Furthermore,it is linked with preparations made for the entry of Poland into the structures of the European Union. The examined problem is connected with widely comprehended real estate economy, and comprises an integral section of spatial planning. The intention of the author was to present historical real estate conceived as particular objects on the real estate market,whose utilisation is conditioned by detailed legal regulations concerning the protection of historical monuments,apart fromgenerally binding ones.
Historical real estate consists of objects guaranteed legal protection owing to their historical,scientific or artistic qualities. Objects and complexes listed in the register of historical monuments are subjected to determinants different than those concerning other forms of real estate. The discussed article proposes, i.a. a definition of the concept of historical real estate and reflections on the range and possibilities of the unhampered usage of the object by its owner. The author also tackles the principles of evaluating historical objects.
The text is supplemented by a table on conditions for the utilisation of historical real estate, which is an attempt at a synthetic interpretation of the profits enjoyed by the owner due to the possession of such real estate,and the limitations produced by conservation prohibitions, injunctions and recommendations.The author took into consideration the legal state obligatory on 1 January 1999.
Inwentaryzacja zabytków w okresie dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, s. 375-390
Inventories o Historical Monuments from the Inter-war Period
Attempts at a completion of inventories of Polish historical monuments date back to the last 150 years. First wider-ranging inventory undertakings originated in the mid-nineteenth century (the campaign conducted by Kazimierz Stronczyński). Subsequently,inventories were initiated upon several occasions,but their outcome concerned only several counties (Cracow,Grybów and four counties in the Lublin region). A more extensive inventory campaign was not commenced until after 1918. The work performed at the time can be divided into two groups:a professional topographic inventory based on earlier registers of historical monuments, and photographs and measurements of particular buildings.
The topographic inventory was conducted in accordance with an earlier devised plan, which originally involved about 40 counties.Assistance was rendered by conservation offices, and from 1929 the work was coordinated by the newly established Central Inventory Office, which supervised the inventory campaign and inaugurated systematic efforts financed by the state. The inventories were based on an officially issued instruction (1930), which defined particular principles.The inventories encompassed works of art from the tenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century, and in exceptional instances took into consideration objects from a later period. The central offices gathered "descriptive-scientific material "as well as collections of technical measurements and photographs, and commenced a register of historical monuments.An inventory of historical monuments dealing with particular counties was edited and published.Regional inventory offices and groups of persons conducting the inventories were organised, and cooperation with assorted institutions and professional experts was established. The inventory campaign was supported also by official conservators and voivodeship Departments of Art, which cared for local historical monuments. Up to the out-break of the war,it proved possible to complete the inventories of more than ten counties;two such inventories were issued in the form of separate publications (the county of Nowy Targ, prep. by S. Szydłowski, Warszawa 1938, and the county of Rawa Mazowiecka, ed. by J. Szablowski, Warszawa 1939).
Further tasks entailed measurements and photograph in ventories of particular monuments of architecture. The widest campaign was pursued by the Departments of Archi tecture at the Polytechnics in Warsaw and Lvov. Those efforts denoted inventories of various types of buildings: castles, palaces, churches, synagogues, Russian Orthodox and Uniate churches,whole villages and rural architecture. The outcome included architectonic and photographic inventories. Such initiative was carried out with enormous impetus and, from the viewpoint of the applied methods, was highly innovative (the Institute of Polish Architecture at the Warsaw Polytechnic was headed by Oskar Sosnowski). Almost the entire collection at the Warsaw Polytechnic, concerning the territory of the Second Republic, has been preserved,but the collection at the Lvov Polytechnic became scattered after 1939.
The examined article discusses inventory leafs pertaining to particular historical monuments from about 1932 to 1935, kept in the Institute of Art at the Polish Academy of Sciences (Warsaw), and concerning the terrains of presentday Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, topographic inventories in manuscript form (e.g. the county of Zaleszczyki, today: Ukraine), and a number of scientific works based on completed inventories, e.g. on art in Vilno and Lvov. Owing to the subsequent devastation of numerous historical monuments, these publications, dealing with Polish, Jewish, Ukrainian, Belorussian and Lithuanian monuments,are of enormous importance, and testify to the diversity and richness of the Central European cultural landscape.
Konserwacja polichromii i sztukaterii w pałacu w Konarzewie, s. 391-402
The Conservation o Polychromy and Stucco in Konarzewo Palace
In 1991-1996, the author supervised the conservation of polychromy and stucco in five chambers in Konarzewo Palace near Poznań: the hall and alcove on the storey, the music and corner rooms on the ground floor, and the grand dining room;unfortunately, the undertaking remains uncompleted. The polychromy represented assorted states of preservation, and certain parts disclosed more than 50% gaps. The conservation, preceded by photographic documentation, began with the removal of repainting and oil varnish rubbed into the plaster surface. Initial attempts were made to remove the repainting with the aid of organic solvents (mineral spirits, turpentine, toluene, acetone).
Satisfactory results were obtained, however, after the application of pastes based on methyl chloride. Remnants were removed with acetone, with simultaneous additional cleaning by means of bristle paint brushes.The complete removal of the oiled painted layers was followed by a cleaning of the surface of the painting with a 5% solution of saponins in distilled water. The elimination of the repainting revealed the presence of rather numerous gypsum putties, especially along the edge of the composition. The putties were removed echanically. The loosening of the plaster was glued with a 5-10% water solution of polyvinyl acetate. Gaps in the plaster and cracks were filled with a lime-sand mass (3:1), covering moistened areas with a thin layer of lime, tinted with the local colour.
Repair of the gaps and rubbed out spots was accomplished by resorting to the "small point " technique, and mineral paints produced by Winsor-Newton, diluted in whitewash. The surface of the painting was rendered protected with a 1% solution of Paraloid B-T2 in toluene. The removal of the repainting of the stucco was conducted mechanically, after the surface was sprinkled with water.
The softened additional layers were eliminated with stucco and sculpting tools.The surface was cleaned with stubble paint brushes and small brushes. The performed work made it possible to localise the original colour of the background. After the complete cleaning of the surface of the stucco and the background, the onservators supplemented the decoration (profiled elements), and applied putty in cracks and chips, by using lime-sand mortar. The colour of the ceiling was reconstructed upon the basis of preserved fragments. The painting was performed by using a lime-casein solution, highly diluted and with glazing properties. Covering the surface and achieving the suitable colour called for painting it from two to three times.
KOMUNIKATY I DYSKUSJE / COMMUNIQUES AND DISCUSSION
Dziedzictwo kultury - europejskie,narodowe czy w łasne?, s. 403-406
Cultural Heritage - European,National or Own?
The concept of the cultural heritage used and even abused in statements made in politics, the press and scientific publications, usually denotes historical monuments. The author of the article proposes a concise presentation of his views concerning this type of legacy and so-called cultural goods, part of which deserve to be described as cultural evil. It would be difficult to consider, for example, the Palace of Culture and Science, foreign monuments and traces of the partitions or occupation to be national property or legacy. In conclusion, the author claims that national identification is threatened by the deprivation of culture;on the other hand, the deprivation of a nation means that culture becomes a collection of relics and incomprehensible rituals.
Rola edukacji w profilaktyce ochrony zabytków, s. 407-413
The Role of Education in the Prophylaxis of the Protection of Historical Monuments
Civilisational development signifies both increased interest in historical monuments and the creation of additional threats to cultural legacy, i.a. posed by decisions with long-term effects. Apparently,conservators of historical monuments are incapable of compensating for the devastation and losses produced by the neglect of users and the carelessness of officials. Every year,the number of irretrievably damaged objects continues to grow.
Numerous European countries witness the positive outcome of the role played by school education as regards the prophylaxis of the protection of historical monuments. Poland became the site of multiple interesting social initiatives serving such protection. Nonetheless, there is no general model of school curricula which would make full use of knowledge about historical monuments and their protection.
Pomniki historii -nie wykorzystana szansa, s. 414-417
Historical Monuments -the Unexploited Opportunity
In 1994 the President of the Republic of Poland signed fifteen by-laws recognising fifteen complexes and fragments of towns as historical monuments. In this manner, he realised a delegacy to issue an executive act acknowledging the existence of historical monuments, mentioned in 1990 in an amendment of the law of 15 February 1962 on the protection of cultural property and museums. Unfortunately, until this day an executive decree, which remains the obligation of the Minister of Culture and Art and defines the organisation of the protection of thus distinguished historical complexes, has not been made public.
The author of the presented study discusses the intentions of the legislator:
- to set up a list enumerating objects to be introduced into the World List of Cultural and Natural Heritage;
- to create conditions for the protection of areas containing not only the objects mentioned in the register of monuments,but also contemporary buildings;
- to ensure conditions for benefiting from special funds set up by the President or financial assistance offered by international projects;
- to establish a precedent organisation dealing with protection in the form of special boards or institutions to be entrusted with this type of protection, modelled on measures applied in the protection of Nature.
In the opinion of the author,the devise about historical monuments provides an opportunity for introducing an additional instrument, neglected up to now.
Pomniki historii jako kategoria prawna, s. 418-422
Historical Monuments as a Legal Category
In 1994 a decree issued by the President of the Republic of Poland recognised fifteen complexes as historical monuments, which consequently may be included in the World Heritage List. The author questions the purposefulness of this solution, and recalls that the evaluative classification, applied more than thirty years ago and listing monuments representative on a global scale, incurred enormous damage by acting as a directive enumerating what could be destroyed, and not protected,in the first place. The article draws attention to the fact that although certain historical buildings were conserved and rebuilt in the People ’s Republic of Poland, there was no legal protection of monuments.Sheer habit and a lack of legal training suggested to conservators solutions that are worthless or outright harmful from the viewpoint of protection. The author also recollects that it is not "global" significance,but ties with local history which are decisive for merits which he describes as patriotic, and which constitute an index of the cultural identity of a given nation.
Dokumentacja konserwatorska Przedsiębiorstwa Państwowego Pracownie Konserwacji Zabytków. Powstanie i stan zasobu, sytuacja aktualna, s. 423-427
The Conservation Documentation o the State Enterprise: the Ateliers for the Conservation of Historical Monuments. Origin and State o Resources.Current Situation
The author recalls the circumstances of the establishment of an archival team dealing with documentation at the State Enterprise: the Ateliers for the Conservation of Historical Monuments,presents the size of the collection in question, and discusses the current situation associated with arrangement and storage of documentation.
Dwór Wettinów w Naroczycach na Dolnym Śląsku, s. 428-437
The Wettin Manor in Naroczyce (Lower Silesia)
The manor in Naroczyce (Närschütz) near Ścinawa in Lower Silesia was erected in 1688. The estate in question was the property of the Wettin Saxon Electors (1680 -1708). The German historian J. Weber maintains that the local manor house was built by August the Strong (1670 -1733, King of Poland from 1697), although this claim is contradicted by facts,as proven by the author of the article. The manor contains elements of the Late Renaissance and the Baroque.
The architecture and details, of rather common forms, make it impossible to associate this anonymous work with a concrete architect or a narrower artistic milieu. The object possesses several valuable elements: polychromy beam ceilings on the storey and lavishly decorated stucco ceilings in two chamber on the ground floor. The largest, south-western hall has an interesting iconographic programme of the stucco decoration, consisting of five personifications of the senses, two landscape scenes,and two monograms - the intertwined letters A, topped with a crown, which could refer to August and his beloved mistress, Aurora von Königsmarck. After the birth of an illegitimate successor by August ’s wife, Christine Eberhard von Bayreuth, Aurora lost her rank, but remained a close friend of the later monarch. Quite possibly, for a certain time, Naroczyce served as her residence; hence the personification of the five senses and the two letters A, additionally creating the letter M, which could recall their son,Maurice of Saxony.
Jaz łowieckie katakumby, s. 438-449
The Catacombs in Jazłowiec
After the second world war, a considerable part of eastern territories remained outside the frontiers of Poland. This fact signified a further devastation of property, initiated by wartime hostilities,as well as a severance of contacts with the cultural heritage of the once multinational state. The same fate was shared by Jazłowiec, where the former palace, built on the site of the Lower Castle (Castle Hill), was granted to the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary (1863). Under the supervision of Mother Marcelina Darowska, the nuns opened a celebrated and acclaimed girls’ school, active up to the outbreak of World War II. The tomb used as the burial site for nuns was constructed in the form of catacombs on the western edge of Castle Hill.
The article contains an historical outline and an architectonic description of the tombs as well as a proposal for the anti-dampness protection of its structure.
Adam Krajewski, Jerzy Ważny,
Niektóre problemy występujące przy konserwacji zabytkowych budynków na terenie cytadeli w Hue w Wietnamie, s. 450-459
Select Problems in the Conservation o Historical Buildings in the Hue Citadel in Vietnam
In December 1996 - March 1997,the State Enterprise: the Ateliers for the Conservation of Historical Monuments conducted work in the The Mieu temple and the Ta Vu pavilion in Hue (Central Vietnam). The authors outlined the scale of conservation problems caused by the size of the Citadel in Hue as well as enormous wartime devastation and post-war neglect.The article discusses difficulties connected with specific climatic conditions, material, the rapid succession of vegetation (including trees and shrubs) and traditional architectonic solutions, conducive for the biodegradation of buildings. The authors consider assorted species of fungi (Serpula lacrymans, Poria medullaris, Phlebiopsis gigantae, Antrodia serialis, Peniophora purpurea, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Pholiota adiposa, Schizophyllum commune and Trichoderma viridae) and insects, especially termites (Odontotermes hainanensis and Coptoterme formosanus ), harmful for timber.
KRONIKA / CHRONICLE
Popularyzacja i edukacja w ochronie zabytków - Europejskie Dni Dziedzictwa - Bogusław, s. 460-462
Popularisation and Education concerning the Protection of Historical Monuments - European Heritage Days
„Drewno archeologiczne - badania i konserwacja" - sympozjum,Biskupin - Wenecja, 22-24 czerwca 1999 r. - Leszek Babiński, s. 463-465
Symposium on Archaeological Timber - Research and Conservation, Biskupin - Wenecja 22-24 June 1999
Feliks Kanclerz (1908-1969) - Zdzisław Migurski, s. 466-467
PIŚMIENNICTWO / WRITINGS
Wybrana bibliografia dotycząca zabytków barokowych - opracowali Krzysztof Jodłowski, Beata Marzęta, s. 468-477
Select Bibliography on Baroque Historical Monuments in Great Poland