Centralna ewidencja i rejestr zabytków architektury i budownictwa w Polsce w świetle zasobu Ośrodka Dokumentacji Zabytków, s. 191-202
The Central Record and Register of Monuments of Architecture and Construction in Polandin the Light of the Resources of the Centre for the Documentation of Historical Monuments
A central record and register of historical monuments in Poland is conducted by the
Centre for the Documentation of Historical Monuments in Warsaw upon the basis of adecree
issued by the Minister of Culture and Art on 30 December 1987. This article examines only
monuments of architecture, construction and town planning (and does notconsider
archaeological objects and so-called mobilemonuments).
Record documentation is composed of two ensembles containing (according to the state on 31 December 1997):
- 615 017 address register cards ("fiches")
- 118 821 record cards (two types: old "green" and new- from 1977 - "white").
- The Centre also stores 40 110 copies of decisions about the inclusion into the register of historical monuments, which provide protection for 55 655 individual objects.
Ochrona dziedzictwa przemysłowego w Polsce, s. 203-209
The Protection of Industrial Legacy in Poland
Poland is the site of numerous extant and unique industrial facilities which, deprived
of conservation protection, will be turned into scrap metal or pulled down, although they
could serve social education by stirring an awareness of participation in a constant
process of the development of technical civilization.
At present, the privatisation of the economy and the implementation of market principles has produced a serious threat to historical objects and complexes, connected with technical industrial legacy, in a situation when binding legal regulations are not conducive for an effective protection of industrial heritage.
The article discusses prime trends of the activity pursued by conservation services, local initiatives and the efforts of associations intent on the documentation and protection of the monuments of technology.
Problemy prawne ochrony zabytków cmentarnych w Polsce, s. 210-217
Legal Problems of the Protection of Cemetery Historical Monuments in Poland
The multi-strata problem of the protection of cemetery historical monuments is
reflected also in Polish legal regulations. This issue is defined in several legal
regulations, determining the legal forms, principles and course for the protection of both
entire cemeteries and particular graves. The protection of burial sites is also regulated
by means of international conventions, especially bilateral ones, signed with states
neighbouring with Poland.
This article refers the issue in question to civilian, religious, military (wartime), closed (unused) and open (used) cemeteries, discussed against the background of currently binding legislation. The author proposes an analysis of the duties of the administrators of cemeteries and the users of particular burial sites. Ensuing problems are discussed also in the light of the adjudication of the Chief Administrative Court and the Supreme Court. The article draws attention to the necessity of changing the obligatory regulations, since due to their low effectiveness current solutions should be regarded as unsuitable for contemporary demands of the protection of historical monuments.
Nekropolie wilanowskie - historia, problemy konserwatorskie, s. 218-227
The Wilanów Necropolises - History and Conservation Problems
The history of the residence of Jan III Sobieski, king of Poland, in Wilanów, located 10 kms to the south-east of the centre of Warsaw, dates back to the early Middle Ages. The beginnings of a settlement in this terrain are testified by an early mediaeval cemetery from the thirteenth-fourteenth century, discovered in 1955-1961 at the site of he later parish church, erected at the end of the fifteenth century. The transference of the church at the end of the seventeenth century to the west was accompanied by the establishment of a cemetery existing up to the first quarter of the nineteenth century. A new cemetery was created in 1816, far from the palace and village buildings and designed in the form of asmall circle with a chapel-mausoleum in the centre (1824-1826). In the mid-nineteenth century, the cemetery was expanded and given the form of a Greek cross which at the end of the century became a square with rounded edges. The original shape of the cemetery was deformed during the second world war. The first attempt at its regulation and harmonious development linked with the composition configuration of the royal residence in Wilanów was made after the war. Difficulties encountered by the realisation of this project led to a second design, proposed in 1996; its implementation should be favoured by the new sociopolitical conditions in Poland.
Cmentarz kapitulny we Fromborku, s. 228-232
The Chapter Cemetery in Frombork
The cemetery, founded at the beginning of the twentieth century, functioned up to the year 1946. It was the burial site for deceased members of the Warmia Cathedral Chapter, established in the mid-thirteenth century by Anselm, the first bishop of Warmia. In the 1911-1946 period the cemetery witnessed 23 burials, and up to this day preserved 20 monuments executed from various material: stone, iron, and wood. The appearance of the cemetery is supplemented by a monumental sculpture depicting the Crucifixion, a copy of a well-known work by Tilemann Niemenschneider, master of Würzburg, and executed by Stein, a sculptor from Freiburg.
Cmentarz polski w Żytomierzu, s. 233-245
The Polish Cemetery in Żytomierz
The Roman Catholic cemetery in Żytomierz, known up to this day as the Polish cemetery,
was established in 1799 about 2 kms to the south of the town, on a hilly terrain with
considerable differences of height (up to 30 metres). In 1888, the cemetery was enlarged
to present-day dimensions (9hectares 60 ares). Attempts at a further expansion failed -
neither the Russian nor the subsequent Soviet authorities agreed for political reasons.
The only solution was the liquidation of the old graves for the purposes of reusing the
sites. This campaign led to the devastation of numerous tombstones, especially in the
first half of the nineteenth century. Even worse effects were produced by the sale of the
more ornate tombstones, carried out by the municipal authorities in 1957-1970. Today, the
cemetery contains 2222 extant Polish graves, i. e. with Polish inscriptions. The cemetery
is used and no concession for its expansion has been obtained as yet.
In comparison with cemeteries in Poland, a characteristic feature of the Żytomierz site is the difference of material used for the tombstones. In Żytomierz, 98% tombstones are made of hard material - granite, labradorite and gabbro while in the Warsaw Powązki cemetery the use of such material does not exceed 3%. Iconography also discloses certain differences. A complete inventory of the Polish graves conducted in 1994 and 1995 offered data pertaining to the tombstones and made it possible to expand the base of genealogical data by several thousand names.
Cmentarze żydowskie w województwie katowickim - historia, stan zachowania, problemy ochrony, s. 246-257
Jewish Cemeteries in the Katowice Voivodeship - History, State of Preservation, Protection Problems
For decades, Jewish cemeteries in Poland have been deprived of care ensured by families
of the deceased. Unrenovated, unconservated and, in many localities, gradually devastated,
they disappeared owing to their usage as an easily accessible source of construction
material (Dąbrowa Górnicza, Olkusz, Toszek, Mysłowce, Chorzów, Racibórz). Broken and
cracked headstones found in areas overgrown with trees and weeds, often used as rubbish
dumps - this was the most commonly encountered appearance of such sites throughout the
country. Only in several score localities are Jewish cemeteries the objects of constant
The Hebrew language contains several expressions used to describe the concept of a cemetery: Bejt chaim - the house of life, Bejt olam - the house of eternity, or Der hajlike ort -the holy place. Their Polish counterparts are kirkut, kierkow or okopisko. One of the basic Biblical duties in Jewish religion and culture is that of burying the dead and respect for the burial site. The cemetery was, and is regarded as a venerated spot. The Judaic religion regards burial sites as a particular sacrum and has no concept of a liquidation of a cemetery.
The first Jews in Upper Silesia and the later Dąbrowa Basin appeared at the beginning of the twelfth century and during the fourteenth century. The development of mining and industry in the first half of the nineteenth century, and the partially equal rights granted to the Jewish community in the Prussian state in 1812 made it possible to establish new kahals and generated an influx of Jews to particular towns and settlements.
Heretofore findings place the number of historical cemeteries in the Katowice voivodeship at about 450, including 45 necropolises of the Mosaic faith, dating from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Some 95% of the historical necropolises are objects from the turn of the nineteenth century. Only 33 cemeteries contain extant gravestones, and the others were liquidated during the second world war and the 1960s and 1970s. The oldest necropolis in the voivodeship is the cemetery in Olkusz, founded in the second half of the sixteenth century (about 1584).
Historical "houses of eternity" are found in Wielowieś, Mikołów, Kromołów, Chrzanów, Bieruń Stary and Będzin. Eleven cemeteries contain extant funeral houses. Only four out of a total of 33 Jewish cemeteries are listed in a register of historical monuments. On 18 July 1991, the Sejm passed an amendment to the law about cemeteries and the burial of the deceased, guaranteeing inviolability to cemeteries of all religions.
Dziewiętnastowieczna restauracja kolegiaty w Kruszwicy, s. 258-265
Nineteenth-century Restoration of the Kruszwica Collegiate Church
Conservation conducted in the collegiate church in Kruszwica in the course of the last two centuries was the outcome of two different artistic conceptions. The 1856- 1859 restoration, performed according to the principle of unity (purity) of style, was applied only in reference to the outer solid of the church (the outfitting of the interior remained Baroque). In the political situation of the period, the scientific milieu and society considered the enhancement of the collegiate church with numerous brick detail, foreign to Romanesque architecture from the first half of the twelfth century, as a tendentious attempt at endowing the church with features of a "Prussian" neo-Gothic. Postwar work, performed in 1954-1956, aimed at an intentional archaisation of the interior, which corresponded to the conception of modernist aesthetics, launched at the time. The designed Romanesque interior, displaying the texture of the walls, does not reflect the atmosphere of a Romanesque church, which offered the faithful of the Early Middle Ages a whole gamut of bright hues and opulent detail.
Weronika Maria Liszewska
Papier japoński jako materiał w konserwacji dzieł sztuki, s. 266-272
Japanese Paper in the Conservation of Works of Art
Handmade Japanese paper comprises material used in the conservation of works of art for
the purposes of doubling, under-gluing, and the supplementation of gaps, as well as
auxiliary work connected with the conservation not only of paper but also paintings and
fabric. A list of basic information about washi can assist in the selection of suitable
The quality of paper is affected by properties of the fibres from which it is made. The process of production itself can exert considerable impact on the durability and features of Japanese paper. Paper traditionally produced in Japan possesses original names and characteristic.
It is highly recommended to use paper tested in Western laboratories, although the information offered by the producer and own observations could be also helpful in determining quality.
Zabytkowe okna. Metody badań i konserwacji, s. 273-293
Historical Windows. Research and Conservation Methods
The acceleration of the rate of the damage of historical window woodwork and the
exchange of old solutions for new ones (caused by the appearance of plastic windows)
induced the author to analyse all methods which could prove useful in the analysis
(research) and conservation of historical windows.
The first part of the examination considers the window as part of an monument of architecture and its material structure.
Subsequently, the author distinguishes and discusses undertakings used in research concerning historical windows: non-damaging research (an analysis of historical and iconographic sources) and damage-incurring research which encompasses an analysis of the material structure of a building.
The next stage of reflections describes proper conservation inventory (the most suitable scale and course of measurement and photographic inventory as well as the manner of description).
The author lists all the criteria which should form a basis for an analysis and assessment of windows (the window as an inseparable part of the architecture of buildings, the historical window associated with the elevation of the interior of a building, the uniqueness of the stylistic features of the window, the state of preservation, the possibilities of repair and adaptation to contemporary norms).
Attention is also drawn to the problem occurring in highest standard historical monuments, namely, the reconstruction of the earlier form of windows in place of the removed original later solutions (nineteenth- and twentieth- century) as well as the exchange of historical windows for plastic ones. The author analyses problems connected with the recreation of colour. A summary discusses the conservation of old windows, emphasising the need for their documentation and the necessity of current care and repair of damaged solutions. Only the latter can protect against damage and will assist the retention of the majority of historical windows.
Dominik Mączyński, Jerzy Płoński
Problemy technologiczne związane z zastosowaniem nowoczesnych stolarek jednoramowych w starych budynkach, s. 312-318
Technological Problems Connected with the Application of Modern Single-frame Window Woodwork in Old Buildings
Contemporary single-frame woodwork possess many merits. Nonetheless, its application in
old buildings may encounter numerous obstacles. The latter include not only purely
aesthetic issues but also technological problems. Conservators should possess thorough
technical information in order to be able to formulate their recommendations in a precise
manner or to justify their decisions.
Commonly held views about contemporary PVC woodwork are often the outcome of conclusions drawn from evident errors committed during their assembly.
The article discusses select technical problems of new window woodwork with particular emphasis on problems associated with the excessive tightness of contemporary single-frame windows.
Archiwalny zbiór pomiarów zabytków architektury i budownictwa dawnego Zarządu Muzeów i Ochrony Zabytków Ministerstwa Kultury i Sztuki (część II), s. 319-325
The Archival Collection of Measurements of Monuments of Architecture and Construction of the Former Board of Museums and the Protection of Historical Monuments in the Ministry of Culture and Arts (part II)
The first part of the list was published in "Ochrona Zabytków" in 1987 (no. 4). Particular items of the list contain the name of the given locality, its administrative affiliation (according to a state prior to June 1975), a description of the object and abbreviations signifying the type of documentation. The localities are presented in alphabeticalorder.
Marian Paździor (1922-1998) - Lech Krzyżanowski, s. 326-331
Łęczyczanie ratują zabytki swojego cmentarza- Bolesław Solarski, s. 332