ARTYKUŁY / ARTICLES
Dzieje i konserwacja ołtarza Niepokalanego Poczęcia Matki Boskiej z katedry świętych Janów w Toruniu, s. 105-121
The History and Conservation of the Altar of the ImmaculateConception of the Our Lady in the Cathedral of St. Johnthe Baptist and St. John the Apostle in Toruń
The conservation of the altar of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady in the cathedral of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Apostle in Toruń was conducted in 1993-1996.
Up to the time of the last conservation, the prime source of knowledge about the altar in question was only external observation of its current state and available archival data. Research conducted in the course of conservation made possible a more precise dating of the altar and the recreation of its fate together with the alterations of arrangement and colour, to which it gradually succumbed. One of the most intriguing discoveries, which at the same time poses a certain problem from the viewpoint of the cohesion of the conservation programme, was the finding that originally the main altar depiction was not the painting of the Immaculate Madonna, as is the case today, but most probably a Gothic sculpture of the Beautiful Madonna of Toruń, initially shown against a silver-plated glazed backdrop of a niche, and subsequently against the background of an interesting painted decoration, both extant.
The work performed in 1993-1996 entailed complete conservation of the altar, which restored the original colour version of the architecture and the gilding of the carving (the latter was to a considerable extent reconstructed). At the same time, the existing outfitting of the niche, installed into the altar during the second half of the eighteenth century and the nineteenth century - the painting of the
Anna Smoleńska, Marek Rembiś,
Stan zachowania wapienia pińczowskiego zastosowanegow dekoracyjnych elementach architektonicznych kościoła Mariackiego w Krakowie, s. 122-126
The State of the Preservation of Pińczów Limestone Appliedin Decorative Architectonic Elements of the Churchof the Holy Virgin Mary in Cracow
The polluted atmosphere of Cracow enables us to observe an accelerated rate of devastation incurred to historicallimestone buildings, often of unique rank. Those objects, subjected to the direct impact of external factors, suffer from assorted degrees of damage.
The study concerns select fleurons, at present undergoing conservation, made of Pińczów limestone and situated on the external elevation of the church of the Holy Virgin Mary.
The destruction of the examined decorative limestone elements occurred both in the surface sphere, where new minerals crystallised, creating an inner accretion, and in the inner sphere, where assorted types of surface build up came into being.
The outer build up and remnants of sulfates should be removed from the porous area by means of cleansing. Here, it is recommended for the stone to be structurally reinforced by impregnants of considerable penetration properties, which, additionally, do not produce layers sealing the surface.
The missing fragments of the fleurons should be supplemented with mineral masses specially designed for the reconstruction of different variants of Pińczów limestone.
This undertaking will result in highly effective revalorisation, since such masses emulate the features of limestone and, at the same time, offer extensive opportunities for their regulation depending on the expectations of the recipient.
Epitafium dla Gucina, s. 127-132
Epitaph for Gucin
Gucin, the former filial residence of Wilanów, situated in the southern part of Warsaw near the church of St. Catherine, was founded in 1818-1821 upon the initiative of Stanisław August Potocki, the then owner of the Wilanów estate and an outstanding representative of the Enlightenment in Poland. In 1821-1829, after the death of Stanisław, his wife Aleksandra created in the lower part of the estate aGrove-Monument, commemorating both her husband and his brother, Ignacy Potocki. The Romantic Grove was composed of a stone monument modelled on the Scipio sarcophagus, obelisks and memento stones. Friends of the two Potockis, including renowned professors, political activists and ministers of the Kingdom of Poland, planted numerous trees carrying symbolic messages. In the wake of theloss of state independence, the Grove in Gucin became devastated. The two surviving monuments were transferred to the Romantic part of the palace garden in Wilanów.
Morysin - zaniedbana część Wilanowa, s. 133-140
Morysin - the Neglected Part of Wilanów
Morysin is an architectonic park-complex situated opposite the royal palace, on the other side of the so-called Wilanów Pond. Founded in the first half of the nineteenth century, it flourished during the second half of that century; at present, this area is devastated and neglected.
The article recalls the history of the complex, and discusses current problems of the premise, placing emphasis on the need for a rapid salvaging of this picturesque site.
Amfora cypryjska i pelike czerwonofigurowa - zagadnieniatechnologiczne i konserwatorskie antycznej ceramiki archeologicznej, s. 141-152
The Cypriot Amphora and the Red-Figure Pelike -Technological and Conservation Problems ConcerningAncient Archeological Pottery
Information about the state of preservation of ancient ceramic vessels, as well as technological and conservation questions connected with their conservation. The latter include a Cypriot amphora and a red-figure pelike, two valuable objects found in the course of archeological excavations conducted in South Italy and Cyprus during the nineteenth century. The author accentuates the need for source and historical research, supplemented by analyses of material which expand our knowledge about the reasons for the destruction of historical monuments and facilitate the preparation of suitable conservation conclusions. They are of great help also for setting up an appropriate conservation programme, whose realisation, based on the outcome of investigations illustrating the work performed in the case of the two vessels, is described in this publication.
Konserwatorskie bielenie papieru, s. 153-162
Conservation Paper Bleaching
An attempted summary of the state of knowledge concerning the conservation bleaching of old paper. The author perceives bleaching as a sui generis compromise between a wish to improve the aesthetic appearance of an object and the necessity of avoiding unfavourable changes, and places emphasis on the latter. Bleaching with the application of oxidation measures not only eliminates undesirable spots or lightens the entire leaf, but also produces numerous visible and invisible changes, always highly unfavourable for the given object. In turn, the usage of reducing agents avoids such alterations, but achieves only a slight bleaching effect.
The article discusses in detail the employment of chloramine T and unambiguously oxidising agents: hypochlorites, hydrogen peroxide, and potassium permanganate, used by conservation workshops. The author presents proof of the greater harmfulness of the latter three agents in comparison with chloramine T. Alongside oxidation bleaching, the article considers also borohydrides as reducing agents. Their greatest conservation merit lies in the fact that they are capable of reverting, within certain limits, changes caused in the paper by natural aging as well as those generated by chloramine T. The lightening of the base obtained in this manner is, however, inconsiderable.
Wżery historycznych atramentów i tuszy. Problemy ichrestauracji, s. 163-177
Historical Ink and India Ink Pitting. Restoration Problems
This abbreviated version of an article published by the author in 1998 presents the outcome of research on ink pitting, and, more precisely, on the mechanisms and causes of its origin. The author discusses basic methods of the conservation of objects affected by this type of damage.
The studies began with a gathering of prescriptions and the recreation of particular types of ink and India ink, followed by an analysis of their appearance and damage mechanisms. This is the base of a publication containing numerous new information necessary for restoration. The presented study is the first holistic and exhaustive examination of the composite issue at stake and a presentation of ensuing results.
KOMUNIKATY I DYSKUSJE / COMMUNIQUES AND DISCUSSIONSStanisław Stawicki,
Leading monuments of Romanesque art in Poland include the former arch-collegiate church in Tum near Łęczyca, which fulfilled important Church and political functions during the feudal disintegration period (twelfth-thirteenth century). In the course of its more than 800 years-long history, the church in question experienced turbulent and dramatic events. Consequently, the only extant element of the former outfitting of the interior is (apart from a Romanesque portal) a badly damaged, but relatively legible mural from 1611, discovered by Karol Dąbrowski in 1952.
Already in 1930-1939 the weakened construction of the impressive building - specially the towers situated in the western part of the church - was protected by means of injected cement. During the campaign of 1939 the arch-collegiate church suffered serious damage which, in the opinion of the occupation authorities, qualified the valuable object for complete demolition.
The reconstruction and restoration of the Romanesque character of the building, conducted in 1948-1958, were based on a project by Prof. Jan Koszczyc-Witkiewicz.
The final, albeit extremely significant stages of this work (the draining of the terrain, the suitable carrying off of rainwater, the introduction of order into the interior, etc.) were never realised, primarily due to deteriorating relations between the communist state and the Church (after 1953) as well as the death of Prof. J. Koszczyc-Witkiewicz (1958).
Karol Dąbrowski recorded his research and excavation work in a brief but extremely valuable diary which, together with the fragmentarily preserved conservation diary kept by Kalina Stawicka in 1960, became the basis for a presentation, outlined in this article, of the dramatic facts that took place in Tum several decades ago. The most dangerous events in the postwar history of the collegiate church, affecting both the architecture of the building and the paintings, included the unusually wet summer of 1960, when the expansive and flooded basin of the river Bzura, directly adjoining the environs of the church, created an equally vast and menacing fen. The walls of the church, especially to the west, resembled a saturated sponge, and relics of the tenth- and eleventh-century abbey became almost entirely filled with underground water. At the same time, due to the untight roof covering (which in 1952 was missing entirely), equally untight windows and the uncompleted pointing of the walls, rainwater made its way directly into the church interior. In those conditions, conservation of the murals (Romanesque and Renaissance), which in 1960 had been entrusted to a large group of conservators, contrary to their opinion, simply could not produce permanent and positive effects.
Political changes which occurred in Poland in 1989 revived interest in the arch-collegiate church in Tum, although conservation experiences and accomplishments from 1952 and 1960 were taken into consideration only to a slight degree.
It is highly incorrect to launch the view that the prime reason for the progressing degradation of the church was badly performed postwar conservation (1948-1958) and not the location of the church on waterlogged ground, whose harmful impact was intensified by the flood of 1960.
This article contains a bitter reflection on the state of an exceptional historical monument; the lengthy history of its reconstruction and conservation, including undertakings connected with the murals, as well as efforts and strivings intent on its survival, dates back to the postwar decades. Our deliberations are the outcome of concern for the welfare andsuitable state of the preservation of the Tum monument,as well as a reliable truth about its most recent, complicated fate.
Ochrona zabytkowych zapisów fonograficznych, s. 189-193
The Protection of Old Phonographic Records
The article considers gramophone and phonograph recordings of the „standard type" (78 rpm), made in 1878-1945 with acoustic and electric systems. Such recordings should be protected primarily for historical reasons in their capacity as musical illustrations of the epoch in which they were produced. Wartime devastation, the flow of time and ordinary mechanical usage are the reasons why the majority of recordings from 1890-1918 are unique; later recordings are also often represented by single examples. The situation is not much better as regards so-called talking machines. The author draws attention to the fact that Poland has no phonographic museums, and that the resources of the National Library, the Museum of Technology and music museums are haphazard. Furthermore, museum and conservation courses do not include a phonographic specialisation, and protection regulations remain far from perfect. The presented study is dedicated to Prof. Janusz Łętowski (1939-1999), outstanding musicologist and lawyer.
Konserwacja Palais Ideal - jedynego na świecie obiektuarchitektonicznego sztuki naiwnej, s. 194-197
The Conservation of Palais Ideal - the Only ArchitectonicObject of Naive Art in the World
KRONIKA / CHRONICLE
I Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa Studentów Konserwacji Zabytków - Toruń 25-27 lutego 1999 r. - Tomasz Korzeniowski, s. 198-199
First National Scientific Conference of Students of the Conser-vation of Historical Monuments - Toruń 25-27 February 1999
PIŚMIENNICTWO / LITERATURE
Publikacje sesji naukowych organizowanych w Kielcach w latach 1994, 1995 i 1997 w ramach Europejskich Dni Dziedzictwa Kulturowego - Jakub Lewicki, s. 200-209
Publications of scientific sessions organised in Kielce in 1994,1995 and 1997 as part of the European Cultural Heritage Days
Wiesław Domasłowski, Maria Kęsy-Lewandowska, Jadwiga W. Łukaszewicz, Badania nad konserwacją murówceglanych - Andrzej Misiorowski, s. 210
Wiesław Domasłowski, Maria Kęsy-Lewandowska, Jadwiga W. Łukaszewicz, Badania nad konserwacją murówceglanych (Studies on the Conservation of Brick Walls)