"Ochrona Zabytków", ISSN 0029-8247, nr 2/98

Laudacja doktora Wojciecha Fijałkowskiego - Ryszard Brykowski, s. 93-95

Zbigniew Kobyliński
Archeologia jako służba dziedzictwu archeologicznemu, s. 96-99

Archaeology in the Service of the Archaeological Heritage

The author - Deputy Conservator General of Historical Monuments - writes about the protection of the archaeological heritage, described in a pertinent European convention as a "source of collective memory".
The archaeological heritage possesses a special rank among other categories of the cultural heritage. It is usually concealed from society and remains particularly sensitive to all human activity, even such routine forms as land cultivation or the construction of residential estates, while its violation and damage are irreversible.
The prime task of archaeologists does not merely entail, as it is universally believed, an examination of the past by means of studying the archeological heritage, but its protection. If we become aware of the fact that the basic form of archaeological research, i. e. sites, actually incurs damage to archaeological legacy, then we face the dilemma whether to investigate or to protect (also against detrimental excavations). Each of these moral choices appears to be well justified. The International Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage, prepared by ICAHM-ICOMOS, formulated the principle of restricting excavations to an indispensable minimum in cases of endangered sites and, only in exceptional circumstances, non-threatened sites (i.a. when excavations are necessary for essential research purposes).

Ewa Nekanda-Trepka, Michał Smoktunowicz
Badania architektoniczne Pałacu Błękitnego w Warszawie, s. 100-115

Architectonic Research in the Blue Palace in Warsaw

The architectonic investigations in question concern a small fragment of the Blue Palace: a conservatory and cellars underneath the eastern part of the main corps and the eastern wing. Despite this extremely restricted range, the outcome of the studies proved to be very interesting, even sensational, and offered new information about the earliest stages in the construction of the palace as well as modern fortifications in this fragment of the town.
Heretofore investigations pertaining to the Blue Palace were limited to an analysis of archival material, without documents from the end turn of the nineteenth century. The wall structure has never been examined. The point of departure, based on an analysis of pertinent literature and up to now unutilised documents, was composed of four main stages in the construction and expansion of the palace as well as changes in the development of the terrain. The discovery of a stage preceding the construction of the first object - amanor house from the turn of the seventeenth century - proved to be a veritable breakthrough. In order to verify the material traces of phases in the erection of the palace, work was conducted primarily in the cellars and a sondage trench was dug in the eastern courtyard.
Conclusions drawn from studies, whose basic purpose was to provide conservation directives for the repair and adaptation of the cellars, slightly alter the interpretation of the history of the palace itself, but ultimately comprise only a contribution to the very interesting history of the western extremities of Warsaw at the turn of the seventeenth century. Supplementary investigations are required for the upper storeys of the corps of the main palace. The original shape of the Potocki manor house - both its dimensions and decoration are of particular interest; we could be dealing with the only extant remnants of residential construction outside the town boundaries, dating from the second half of the seventeenth century. The original course of Senatorska Street, disturbed by the manor situated at its end, calls for proper interpretation.
Changes in the boundaries of the estate are so well documented that it seems strange that the garden of the Blue Palace was included into the complex of the Saxon Garden. On the other hand, attempts at a re-division of the terrain by resorting to fences or hedges should be regarded as harmful from the viewpoint of the retention and protection of cultural property.

Sławomir Skibiński
Przyczyny zniszczeń elewacji Starego Ratusza w Poznaniu, s. 116-132

Reasons for the Damaged Elevations of the Old Town Hall in Poznań

Historic buildings subjected to post-1945 revalorization succumb to rapid damage. On the one hand, their state is the outcome of the impact of increased environmental pollution and on the other hand - of imperfect and insufficient conservation expertise in combining old and new technologies and material. Construction-conservation work dealing with historic objects erected with old techniques and traditional material (timber, differently baked bricks, natural and artificial stone, lime mortar, etc.) is conducted upon the basis of a new construction philosophy, resorting to novel techniques and material such as cement, reinforced concrete, paint ,etc. In Poland, the progressing destruction of historic buildings conserved by means of new techniques and material has remained unexamined although long-term observations prove that such techniques do not always pass the test.
In 1993-1995, a team established by the National Museum in Poznań and cooperating with the Poznań Polytechnic and Ateliers for Research and Conservation of Historical Monuments in Toruń prepared a complex programme for salvaging the Town Hall, based on interdisciplinary studies. The Programme assumes parallel conservation and implementation studies.

Władysław Sobucki, Danuta Jarmińska, Donata Rams
Rękopiśmienne skarby Biblioteki Narodowej - badania technologiczne, s. 133-146

Manuscript Treasures of the National Library - Technological Research

The conservation of eight of the most valuable parchment manuscripts in the collection of the National Library in Warsaw was conducted in 1993-1998. They included: Testamentum Novum (turn of the eighth century), the Supraśl Codex (eleventh century), the Tyniec Sacramentary (eleventh century), the Wilanów Psalter (thirteenth century), Calendarium Parisiense (fourteenth century), the Floriański Psalter (fifteenth century), the Dutch Prayer-book (fifteenth century) and the Missal of Erazm Ciołek(sixteenth century). The conservation programme encompassed also fundamental technological studies into the manuscripts in question, describing the origin and preparation of the parchments as well as the state of the preservation of the ink. Considerable attention was paid to painted decoration. The authors identified basic pigments and analysed the technology of gilding. Chemical analysis concerned chemical changes in the painting layers executed with white lead, minium, orpiment and silver.
The article discusses the outcom of the studies and proposes their detailed presentation.

Elżbieta Jabłońska
Metody wykonywania pieczęci woskowych, s. 147-155

Methods of Making Wax Seals

Seals of this sort were made with stamps impressed in a suitable plastic mass; their variety throughout centuries remained considerable. The author discusses assorted methods of production, taking into consideration ten seals from the municipal chancery of Toruń from the 1308-1794 period. Ensuing findings confirmed the differentiation of seal masses - the earliest example was made of pure beeswax. Subsequent masses contained numerous components and the beeswax was supplemented by rosin and pigments. Green seals were tinted with verdigris, and red ones - with a mixture of minium and vermilion or the latter ingredient alone.

Anna Wieczorek, Julian Kołodziej
Krajobraz kulturowy Warszawy. Oś Saska - problemy ochrony konserwatorskiej, s. 156-161

The Cultural Landscape of Warsaw. The Saxon Axis - Problems of Conservation Protection

On 1 July 1965, the town planning premise know as the Saxon Axis was listed in the register of historical monuments; unfortunately, the document sanctioning this fact does not contain a graphic addendum which would delineate the boundaries of the area under protection. This fact led to certain consequences, namely, the restriction of the possibilities of conservation protection.
The authors analyse the spatial transformation of this area and draw attention to potential threats due to undesirable spatial transformations produced by new investments within the Saxon Axis. They also accentuate the precedent nature of the problem under examination: a considerable number of town planning entries in the register of historical monuments throughout the whole country does not posses a graphic addendum describing the limits of the protected area.

Zygmunt Błaszczyk
Dwór w Skotnikach nad Pilicą, s. 162-168

The Manor House in Skotniki on the Pilica

Skotniki is located on the river Pilica along the historical borderland between Little Poland and Great Poland. The spatial planning of this small and unprosperous village recalls a small town, with a rectangular market square and streets leading to and from it. The village has two extant sixteenth-century buildings: a wooden church and a stone manor house, both founded by Mikołaj Wspinek, know also as Spinek, owner of several nearby villages. The manor house was erected in the first half of the sixteenth century out of local stone. The cellars and ground floor were covered with barrel vaults. The building was redesigned twice: a north wing was added in the seventeenth century, followed by a south wing, without cellars. The window and door openings preserve stone frames: the simple, oldest example shows traces of grates and the later come from the first stage in the expansion of the manor house.
All the wooden elements of the building: the roof, ceilings and woodwork were damaged in 1915, during the first world war. Repair initiated in 1979 was halted several years later by the new owner - the local parish which is unable to meet the costs of conservation.

Andrzej Kulesza
Propozycja nowych krosien malarskich, s. 169-177

A Proposed New Painting Screen

In view of conservation requirements and heretofore achievements, the author proposes new constructions of display and auxiliary painting screens. Over ten basic features of these well-designed painting screens meet contemporary demands. The presented display screen is made entirely of metal, its arms are of aluminium and the remaining elements are steel. The auxiliary screen uses metal for mounting the canvas and regulating its strain, while the arms are are wooden. Both types apply new methods of mounting the canvas and new systems of regulating the strain by using screws which make it possible to correct the strain of the canvas in two directions and in an unhampered and fluid manner. The whole operation becomes simple and convenient. The author foresees two types of such regulation for the auxiliary screen: based on a single"frame or two-frame structure. The latter enables the regulation of each side separately.
Stretching the canvas on the screen is a simple, quick and efficient operation performed by applying uniform pressure along the whole length of its sides, eliminating the unfavourable effects of the traditionally used small nails. The free space obtained thanks to the new method of placing the canvas on the outer sides of the screen arms makes it possible to utilise it for multiple conservation undertakings, such as doubling on a vacuum table. Both types of the screen can be disassembled. The ease of the assembly and disassembly of the auxiliary screen, together with the possibility of changing its size means that it can be used as a portable device. Both discussed screens can be of great use for a more effective protection of paintings against damage, as well as eliminate unfavourable factors and facilitate the work of conservators.

Jubileusz "Ochrony Zabytków" - Michał Gradowski, s. 178-180

Karczówka. Historia, literatura, architektura, przyroda, Kielce 1995 - Jakub Lewicki, s. 181-187

Kazimierz Stronczyński, Dziennik podróży 1844 rok, Kielce 1996 - Jakub Lewicki, s. 188-189