"Ochrona Zabytków", ISSN 0029-8247, nr 1/99

Wojciech Fijałkowski
Natolin, jego przeszłość, rewaloryzacja i rozbudowa, s. 1-9

Natolin, its Past, Revalorisation and Expansion

The Romantic palace-park complex in Natolin, situated in the southern part of Warsaw, emerged in place of the royal zoological garden of Jan III Sobieski, which dated back to the last quarter of the seventeenth century. In 1730, King AugustII the Strong founded on this site a Pheasantry and created a radial configuration of roads, modelled on the Versailles premise. In 1780-1782, Prince Adam Czartoryski built, in accordance with projects by Szymon Bogumił Zug, a Classicistic palace with a semi-open vista salon to the side of the Vistula escarpment. The interior of the palace was embellished by the paintings of Vincenzo Brenna. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the palace was redesigned by Christian Piotr Aigner, who adapted it for the purposes of asummer residence of the Potocki family, decorated by Empire stucco ornaments. At the same time, the Pheasantry became known as Natolin, from the name of Natalia, daughter of Count Potocki. The reconstruction of the palace was accompanied by the erection of an outbuilding, a stable and carriage house, Empire-style cottages of the caretakers, and a Gothic-Classicistic Dutch dairy. The former zoo was transformed into an English landscape park. In 1834-1835, additions to the park included a Moorish bridge designed by Henryk Marconi, a statue of Natalia Potocka-Sanguszkowa, a Doric temple, a Roman aqueduct and a Moorish gate. The end of the nineteenth century marked a partial degradation of the historical complex, intensified by damage incurred during the second world war. Following the nationalisation of Natolin in 1945, the complex became the residence of the President of the Republic of Poland and, subsequently, the seat of the Council of Ministers. Since 1993 it houses the College of Europe. The intention of currently conducted conservation is to restore the palace-park complex to its former splendour and adapt a number of buildings for the needs of the College.

Piotr Dobosz
Podstawy prawne, zakres i formy urzędowej ingerencji konserwatorskiej a prawo do reklamy podmiotów prowadzących działalność gospodarczą w obiektach zabytkowych, s. 10-14

The Legal Foundation, Range and Forms of Official Conservation Interventionand the Right to Advertise of Subjects Engaged in Economic Activity in Historical Objects

The aesthetics of advertising is one of the basic as yet unresolved problems of the protection of historical monuments in Poland. Its reference involves imprecise legal regulations. Heretofore legal studies discussed this issue from the viewpoint of other research levels, a process which the presented article also takes into consideration. Within this context, the author considers conservation rights justifying the official intervention of public administration organs. The voivodeship conservator of historical monuments is only one of the subjects co-shaping the aesthetic image of individual historical objects and entire historical areas. Furthermore, conservation intervention is performed upon the basis of premises other than those which entitle remaining organs of governmental and self-government administration to enter the sphere of subjective rights.

Wojciech Borkowski
Krzemionki opatowskie palący problem konserwatorski, s. 15-20

Krzemionki Opatowskie - an Urgent Conservation Problem

The complex of historical flint mines in Krzemionki Opatowskie near Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski forms a unique object. An area of more than 30 hectares contains over 5 000 flint mines from the Early Stone (Neolithic) Age and Early Bronze Age. The mining field in Krzemionki is the shape of a gigantic parabola some 5 kms. long. Unfortunately, at present, this unique object faces numerous threats.
The surface weathering of the rock mass comprises the most essential peril for the subterranean headings of the mines. Rain water permeates the fissures of the limestone and, after freezing, expands the cracks, making it possible for the roots of trees growing on the Krzemionki mines to penetrate deep into the rock mass. In 1984-1985, subterranean route no. I was re-opened to visitors. Indispensable mining work was conduced; the tunnel roof became supported by closely arranged pairs of steel pillars, isolated from the damp air by means of cement mortar. The introduced method of bonding the rock mass resorted to a binder composed of cement mass and Cerasit , a ready-made binder used, i. a. for ceramic tiles. This method produced good results, and enabled the reduction of the impact of weathering in the region of the tourist route.
In the direct vicinity of the above mentioned route there lies an area where during the 1930s the local peasantsdestroyed fragments of the rock mass together with the mines. The roofs of the remaining chambers are so cracked that they threaten to collapse at any moment.
Vegetation on the surface of the terrain in question constitutes an indubitable attraction of the Krzemionki reservation. Unfortunately, the roots of large plants penetrate deep into the rock mass, intensifying the weathering process. They also damage the mine slag heaps and flint processing workshops located on the surface.
During the 1960s, the ironworks in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski used the limestone quarry in the reservation, creating a threat to the mining camps on the edge of the field. Further destruction of the environment was halted thanks to the enormous effort of the entire archaeological milieu, which saved Krzemionki. Currently, another dangerous technological process entails the reutilisation of the waste, which calls for shifting enormous masses of ashes and cinder, aprocedure that, unfortunately, takes place in the reservation. All workshops and camps adjoining the field have been damaged, and the slag heap is encroaching the terrain encircling the field itself. The next extremely urgent task, therefore, entails putting an immediate halt to this process.

Janusz W. Błaszczyk, Wojciech Kurpik
Rosyjska ikona metalowa XVIII i XIX wieku, s. 21-33

Russian Metal Icons of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century

Recently, a large number of works of art and historical relics are smuggled via Poland to Western Europe. A great part is composed of Russian Orthodox sacral objects, including icons painted on wood and metal icons. Although, as a rule, the latter do not represent a high artistic level, they are a valuable source of information about the culture and history of Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church. Their origin dates back to the distant history of the Eastern rite. Small metal icons and crosses were used in Russia during the tenth century, when they were introduced from Byzantium together with Christianity. The tradition of producing such icons was preserved in Novgorod and Pskov as late as the seventeenth century. The cast iron icon owes its popularity and growth to the Old Believers, a group which left the Orthodox Church. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Old Believers dominated the production of icons and crosses cast from copper alloys. The number of theproduced metal icons was immense, since they fulfilled the requirement for a cheap, inexpensive and durable personal icon, which could accompany the faithful in their daily life. The iconography and number of particular depictions reflect the relations observed on wooden icons. The majority of the metal objects survived up to our times in a satisfactory condition and, with the exception of cleaning and surface protection, do not demand special conservation.

Anna Smoleńska, Marek Rembiś
Zmiany mikrostrukturalne wapieni jurajskich, użytych w wybranych obiektach zabytkowych, jako efekt antropogenicznych zanieczyszczeń atmosfery, s. 34-38

Microstructural Changes of Jurassic Limestone Used in Select Historical Objectsas the Effect of Anthropogenic Pollution of the Atmosphere

Cracow is a town of exceptional historical significance. It contains about 3 500 historical buildings, chiefly of a sacral nature, constructed of assorted types of material, including limestone.
Owing to the considerable emission of pollutants, both gas and dust, Cracow witnesses a rapid rate of the damage suffered by its valuable objects.
Microstructural studies on limestone from houses in 17 and 18 Kanoniczna Street, the church of the Holy Virgin Mary and the Decjusz Villa made it possible to define properly the structure and texture of the stone, its mineral composition and porosity. Furthermore, they permitted an assessment of the susceptibility of limestone to the tempo and nature of destruction leading to the appearance of gaps.
One of the methods applied for the reconstruction of such gaps is the use of mineral masses which correspond to the conserved stone not only as regards its outer appearance but also its physical and mechanical properties. Such masses are safe for the health of the users, reversible, and possess appropriate functional qualities.
The conservation market offers a special Reno SUPERBET mortar, devised by a group of scientists from the Mining andMetallurgical Engineering Academy in Cracow. This mortar consists of several types of mineral masses employed for supplementing gaps in various types of limestone and sandstone.

Andrzej Koss, Jan Marczak
Czyszczenie laserem wybranych powierzchni kamiennych grobu nieznanego żołnierza w Warszawie, s. 39-44

Laser Cleaning of Select Stone Surfaces of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw

The article discusses the use (the first in Poland) of the Nd:YAG laser with Q modulation for the purposes of cleaning the surface of select stone elements of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw. The authors consider the impact of the parameters of the laser beam upon the rapidity of the process and the thickness of the removed hard, black layers which amassed for the past several decades.
The laser method of cleaning surfaces is the most effective and efficient, and, at the same time, the least aggressive and the most environment-friendly technique. It guarantees a selective removal of layers from the polluted surface and is highly convenient, especially in the case of conservation performed on high scaffolding.

Adam Krajewski
Uszkodzenia zabytków w Egipcie powodowane przez owady, s. 45-53

Insect-produced Damage of Egyptian Monuments

The publication lists species of insects which in Egypt damage wood (Hylotrupes bajulus L., Nicobium castaneum Ol., Oligomerus ptilinoides Woll., Lyctus brunneus Steph., L. africanus Lesne, Trogoxylon impressus Com., Cryptotermes brevis Walker, Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr., Anacanthotermes ochraceus Burm., Microcerotermes eugnatus Silv., Psammotermes hybostoma Desn., P. fumoralis Sjost., P. assuanensis Sjost. and Xylocopa aestuans L.), bamboo (Dinoderus minutus Fabr. and Rhizoperta dominica Fabr.), articles made of palm seed (Coccotrypes dactyliperda Fabr. ), fabrics (Anacanhotermes ochraceus Burm. and other termites, Enneodesmus obtusedentatus Lesne, Anthrenus verbasci L., A. fasciatus L., A. minor Woll, A. flavipes Le Conte, Tineolabiselliella Hum.,Tinea pellionnella L., T. granella L., Trichophaga tapetzella L.),papyrus, parchment, paper (Anacanthotermes ochraceus Burm., Psammotermes fuscofemoralis Sjost., P. assuanensis Sjost. and Lepisma saccharina L.) mummies (Dermestes frischi Kug., D. carnivorous F. and D. ater /De Geer/) and other organic-origin objects (Stegobium paniceum L., Lasioderma serricorne Fabr., Rhizopertha dominica Fabr., Ptinus brunneus Duft., P. variegatus Rossi, Gibbium psylloides Czemp., Attagenus unicolor /Brahm./, Dermestes ater (/De Geer/, Thylodrias contractus /Motschulsky/, Anthreneus verbasci L., A. fasciatus L., A.minor Woll., Trogoderma granarium Everts., T. irroratum Rett., and T. versicolor Cre.). Particular attention was drawn to sandstone disfigured and damaged by Chalicodoma siculum (Risso) (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera). This publication is the outcome of a survey of literature and own observations, conducted in Egypt in February 1996. Its purpose was to facilitate the work performed by conservators of historical monuments, archaeologists and historians.

Piotr Szlezynger
Dawny kościół parafialny w Dzygówce na Bracławszczyźnie (Ukraina), s. 54-60

The Former Parish Church in Dzygówka in the Bracław Region (Ukraine)

The church in Dzygówka is situated in a town in the former voivodeship of Bracław; after 1772, the town found itself outside the borders of the Commonwealth, and today is located in the central part of the Republic of Ukraine. Up to the mid-nineteenth century Dzygówka was the property of the Jaroszyński family, and included a parish church, a Russian Orthodox church and a synagogue. The Roman Catholic church of the Descent of the Holy Ghost was founded in 1805 by the owners of the town, and erected in the vicinity of their palace. Despite the fact that the church in question, located in the diocese of Kiev, was the only of its sort built in the nineteenth century in the deanery of Bracław, whose area equalled that of a voivodeship, it remained totally ignored in heretofore literature concerning history, the history of art and the Church.
The one-nave church had a cradle vault and an ave-bell over the presbytery; a two-story façade, divided by high entablature, was distinguished by a distinctly forward balcony in the upper part, supported on four columns and probably serving the presentation of a miraculous Marian likeness. The upper storey was closed by a decorative gable, enclosed in a semi-circle, with a blind balustrade and vases on the sides. Next to the church the founders built a priest's house in the style of an Old Polish manor, with a portico supported on columns; the whole object was encircled by a brick wall, and the entrance gate was composed of two bell towers, covered with ridge roofs. In front of the premise, a round fenced-in plateau, built in 1835, held a column with the figure of the Immaculately Conceived Virgin Mary, standing on a entablement stylised to resemble a rock with a shrine and a statue inside.
The church was used up to the inter-war period, but after the second world war its adaptation for the purposes of agymnastic hall destroyed not only the outfitting of the interior, but also the entire surrounding with the column and fencing. A present, the object is being rebuilt.
The discussed church was designed extremely carefully, with due attention paid to vista effects and the organisation of space (the column with the statue, the gate with the bell towers, and the façade of the church). All indicates that Late Baroque forms became well enrooted in the distant borderlands of the Commonwealth and continued to exist as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, the simple and calm lines of the opening frames disclose tendencies close to Classicistic architecture.

Antoni Jacek Koseski
Podominikański zespół klasztorno-kościelny w Sejnach - dzieje zabytku i jego konserwacji, s. 61-67

The Post-Dominican Monastic-church Complex in Sejny - Its History and Conservation

The former Dominican complex located in św. Agaty Square in Sejny is composed of a three-nave basilica of the Visitation of the Holy Virgin Mary, a quadrilateral post-monastic building and a fencing wall. The original version of the basilica was Early Baroque with belated Gothic elements, frequently encountered in Dominican churches. The founder of the church (1610-1619) and the monastery (after 1603, built up to 1706) was Jerzy Grodziński. In 1760, the church was redesigned; its corps was elongated by two spans, the presbytery was reversed, and a monumental faćade with two lofty towers was added. The object in question is the most valuable architectonic monument in the entire Suwałki region. In 1918-1925, it was the cathedral of the Augustów-Sejny diocese, and, subsequently, a collegiate church. The basilica was repaired and conserved, i. a. in 1974-1976 and 1996-1998; the former monastic complex awaits repair and development.

Dariusz Rozmus
Nowe dane dotyczące cmentarzy Żydowskich w dawnym powiecie olkuskim, w granicach administracyjnych do 1975r., s. 68-72

New Data on Jewish Cemeteries in the Former County of Olkusz,within Administrative Boundaries up to 1975

This text comprises a supplementation to the article by Dariusz Waleriański: Cmentarze żydowskie w woj. katowickim (Jewish cemeteries in the voivodeship of Katowice), published in "Ochrona Zabytków" 1998, no. 3.
The author discusses cemeteries in Olkusz (the old and new cemetery), Sławków, Żarnowiec and Pilica.

Wanda Puget
Liber geneseos illustris familiae schidloviciae - panegiryk czy także źródło?, s. 73-76

Liber geneseos illustris familiae Schidloviciae - a Panegyric or also a Source

The unique panegyric of the Szydłowiecki family, one of the most important examples of Polish Renaissance miniature painting ascribed to Stanisław Samostrzelnik, is also a source of reliable information about the objects founded by members of this family. Apart from a glorification of particular representatives of the Szydłowiecki family, who, connected with the royal court, achieved very high ranks in state administration and the Church hierarchy, the text contains also extensive information about their participation in the foundations of numerous objects, not to mention their own residences. The list is impressive, a feature which gives rise to certain doubts concerning its reliability, especially since it refers to a very brief period in the career of the family (two generations). The author attempted to confirm information found in Liber either by resorting to archival material or by identifying the mentioned objects. She also prepared historical documentation for the reconstruction of Szydłowiec Castle, and took part in architectonic research concerning this object and its conservation. The latest discoveries confirming the data contained in Liberinclude polychromies on the walls of the parish church in Szydłowiec.

Andrzej Kulesza
Reperacje długich i wąskich ubytków płótna w obrazach, s. 77-79

Repairs of Long and Narrow Missing Fragments of Canvas

Repairing long and narrow missing fragments of canvas is a source of numerous difficulties. For this reason, the author proposes to compose such long and narrow patches out of shorter sections. Owing to the greater resilience of the bonding of such patches it is recommended to weave the adjoining edges together. With this purpose in mind, the patches are prepared slightly longer. The obtained weave of the joints echoes the structure of the canvas patch an possesses similar resilience, much greater than that of contact gluing. This method may be applied for each bonding of canvas patches.

ENCoR. Eutworzenie pierwszej europejskiej sieci szkół wdziedzinie konserwacji-restauracji, s. 82-84

Ośrodek ds. Polskiego Dziedzictwa KulturowegoPoza Granicami Kraju Stowarzyszenia "Wspólnota Polska" (kwiecień 1996 - grudzień 1997), s. 85-96

Działalność konserwatorska w gdańskim Dworze Artusa, s. 97-101