"Ochrona Zabytków", ISSN 0029-8247, nr 1/98

Janusz Bogdanowski
Kulturowy krajobraz zabytkowy i problemy jego ochrony, s. 4-13

The Protection of the Historical Cultural Landscape

The landscape comprises the physiognomy of an environment, including the cultural one. Over twenty years ago, a system for protecting the natural landscape was established as part of the preservation of nature, but despite numerous works on the subject (G. Ciołek, Z. Novák, 1950), the historical cultural landscape was not formally recognised until the 1991 amendment to the law about the protection of cultural property. Debates of the Conference of European Security and Co-Operation, held in Kraków in 1992, became a turning point, making it possible to apply the already prepared and locally functioning methods and areas of activity (from 1960). Upon this basis, concrete work associated with methodical studies and conceptions was initiated within the Fifth Programme on the Protection of the Cultural Landscape (from 1994); in accordance with the range defined in the law in question, these endeavours encompassed protection on the scale of Poland as a whole (initial undertakings), voivodeships, communes, as well as landscape interiors and panoramas, in reference to the law on spatial planning. The initiative is accompanied by numerous publications. A change in the comprehension of the scale of the historical monument - from an object to historical landscape - constitutes an indispensable and essential breakthrough in the perception and protection of monuments. Unfortunately, this problem remains insufficiently appreciated even by conservators, and thus requires intensive scientific, didactic, and popularisation efforts.

Wojciech Fijałkowski
Problemy ekologicznego zagrożenia Wilanowa, s. 14-20

The Ecological Threat to Wilanów

In recent years, the historical residential complex in Wilanów, located in the southern part of Warsaw, became endangered by increasing air, water, and soil pollution, spontaneous developments of industrial areas, and the planned construction of a Berlin-Warsaw highway, despite protests of scientific, social, and professional organisations. The Society for the Protection of Historical Monuments, together with the Director of the Museum and Palace in Wilanów and Warsaw-based civic organisations, wage an incessant battle for the protection of the threatened historical, cultural, and landscape merits of Wilanów, which is one of the most valuable monuments of Polish culture and one of the few extant grand-scale spatial premises in Warsaw.

Kazimierz Tobolski
Przeszłość ekologiczna Lednickiego Parku Krajobrazowego w świetle badań paleoekologicznych, s. 21-23

The Ecological Past of the Lednicki Landscape Park in the Light of Palaeo-ecological Studies

This paper discusses the importance of palaeo-ecology envisaged as a partner in interdisciplinary activities conducted for the purposes of the natural and applied sciences as well as the humanities. One of the areas of such research is the Lednicki Landscape Park. Gathered data makes it possible to comprehend the evolution of natural environments in the course of the last dozen, or so, millennia in the conditions of anthropopressure. This evolution could be combined with the results of archaeological and historical studies. The author found that, e.g., the considerable degree of the deforestation of the Lednica Lake area took place already in the ninth century, at least 150 years prior to the reign of Mieszko I.

Bogusław Szmygin
Ochrona zabytków architektury wiejskiej w zespoleniu z ochroną krajobrazu i środowiska - możliwości i ograniczenia, s. 24-27

The Protection of Monuments of Rural Architecture Combined with the Protectionof the Landscape and the Natural Environment - Possibilities and Limitations

The system of the protection of monuments of rural architecture in Poland includes only the most valuable objects. The remaining monuments succumb to devastation, and conservation work is limited to documentation. This is the reason why it is so important to implement new forms of activity which will increase the number of salvaged objects.
Special opportunities for the protection of rural monuments are created by their transference by private investors and adaptation for summer cottages. Conservation and organisation requirements indicate that such objects should be amassed in groups functioning as villages composed of summer residences. The best sites for such villages are landscape parks.
The possibilities and limitations of the protection of rural architecture monuments, moved to summer residence villages located in landscape parks, are presented upon the example of Mięćmierz in the Kazimierski Landscape Park.

Janusz Lehmann
Zagrożenia zabytków przez skażenia środowiska, s. 28-30

Environmental Pollution as a Threat to Historical Monuments

The author discusses threats to historical monuments posed by particular types of air, water, and soil pollution. He draws attention to trends in scientific and popular works as well as to achievements and perspectives for the protection of the natural environment. The article outlines possibilities for protection against the devastating impact of aggressive pollution of the environment, and accentuates the synergism of their activity with variable climatic and environmental factors.

Róża Krzywobłocka-Laurów
Koncepcja oceny stanu kamiennych obiektów zabytkowych, s. 31-34

A Conception of an Assessment of the State of Historical Stone Objects

A rational conservation of historical monuments requires a synthetic and uniform gathering of data. The latter make it possible to compare the state of the preservation of the given monument in assorted periods of its exploitation, with consideration for conducted conservation and its effectiveness. The author considers the conception of conducting research and conservation while assessing the state of the preservation of the stone material in the given monument.

Alina Jarmontowicz
Studium trwałości piaskowca w obiekcie zabytkowym w warunkach zanieczyszczenia atmosfery, s. 35-37

A Study on the Durability of Sandstone in a Historical Object and in Conditions of Air Pollution

The rapidity of the damage incurred to stone monuments depends on the resistance of the material and the surrounding environmental conditions. Polish professional literature and conservation practice lack a complex approach to stone material as regards its durability. Global tendencies aim at an all-sided familiarity with the features of the material and the phenomena occurring therein in the course of exploitation. The reaction of the stone material in a historical object depends predominantly on its structure and resultant physical and mechanical properties. The structure and mineral composition of the material decide when and how it should be applied. From the practical point of view, predictions concerning the reaction of material in the course of time is ascribed considerable meaning.
The author presents the structure and mineral composition of examples of domestic sandstones under the impact of air pollution.

Janusz Skoczylas
Studia nad pochodzeniem surowców skalnych użytkowanych w przeszłości, s. 38-41

Studies on the Origin of Stone Raw Material Used in the Past

The author reports the results of geological examinations of rock raw materials used for the construction of early medieval objects of sacral architecture in Lubin near Gostyń (Poland) as well as in Roman objects in Lower Mesia (Novae, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Belenie, Oeskus, Jastrus Krivina - Bulgaria). The identification of the kinds of rock raw material used, the finding of their aboriginal exploitation places is of importance to understand the scope of the problems connected with the economy of the civilisation at that time. He argues also about the need of complex research on economical history of societies. He points at the interdependence of the facts deriving from various disciplines and consequently on the integrity of the common knowledge of historical process.

Dorota Sobkowiak
Zastosowanie zapraw wapienno-trasowych do uzupełniania ubytków w kamiennych obiektach zabytkowych, s. 43-46

The Application of Lime-Trass Mortars for Supplementing Gaps in Historical Stone Objects

The study concerns mortars made of trass lime produced by the German firm Tubag. The author finds that the mortars in question possess many merits, including rapid water transport (capillary pull up - drying up) and minimum contraction (0,10-0,16 mm/mb). The mechanical properties can be regulated within a wide range by means of a suitable mortar composition (Rcompr. 2,8-12 Mpa). The number of soluble salts is small, and totals less than 0,7%. Such mortars may be applied for supplementing gaps, the production of dehumidifying plasters, or for pointing.

Andrzej Kaszubkiewicz
Symbioza zespołu muzealnego z parkiem krajobrazowym na przykładzie Muzeum Pierwszych Piastów na Lednicy, s. 47-50

The Symbiosis of a Museum Complex with a Landscape Park upon the Exampleof the Museum of the First Piasts on Lednica

The author presents the history and the role of the Museum of the First Piasts on Lednica. He discusses stages of successive development - the transformation of the Ostrów Lednicki archaeological reservation into a museum, the creation within its framework of the Lednicki Ethnographic Park and the Lednicki Landscape Park, as well as the addition of the archaeological reservation in Giecz and a number of ethnographic objects preserved in situ. Finally, the article considers the assets and faults of organising such a complex and the principles of the co-operation of the Museum with the authorities and the local community.

Maria Janina Dietrich, Agata Niedek, Tomasz Lechowski
Ochrona ekologiczna zabytkowego Czerska, s. 51-52

The Ecological Protection of Old Czersk

The authors examine the specificity of Czersk within the protected landscape as well as factors stimulating its development as an urban-natural complex. Furthermore, they list premises for a general and detailed ecological protection of Czersk, postulating the distinction of zones and quarters and a precise delineation of the manner of their individual development, which would take into consideration their unique character.

Zofia Gzik
Lapidarium na Starym Cmentarzu w Radomsku, s. 53-56

The Lapidarium in the Old Cemetery in Radomsko

Radomsko, first a castle town and then a ducal and royal town, was granted its location document in 1266 by Leszek the Black, duke of Sieradz. The oldest parish church existed probably already in the twelfth or thirteenth century, and in accordance with the principles of Christianity, the surrounding area was used as a burial ground for the local inhabitants.
Existing circumstances made it necessary to transfer cemeteries outside cities. In Radomsko, the Old Cemetery, functioning up to this day, was established in 1793-1807, when in the wake of the second partition the city became part of the Russian partition area. The Radomsko-based Branch of the Society for the Protection of Historical Monuments, founded on 25 February 1991, set itself the task of saving the tombstones, monuments, and crosses scattered within the cemetery by placing them in a lapidarium. The site was located within the inner wall encircling the existing cemetery. Thanks to donations offered by the Municipal Council, the lapidarium was built in 1992-1996. The collection includes 29 gravestones, 6 monuments, and 11 crosses. Three commemorative plaques of notables, whose graves were liquidated, were installed.

Krzysztof Sałaciński
Straty w dobrach kultury w czasie powodzi - uwagi, spostrzeżenia i wnioski, s. 57-62

Flood-produced Losses of Cultural Property - Remarks, Observations, and Conclusions

In his capacity as the chief specialist in the Defence Office of the Ministry of Culture and Art, the author reports on the situation caused by the flood in the south-western part of Poland in July 1997. The area under water totalled 652 communes and about 665 835 hectares. More than 160 000 people were evacuated, and 55 persons perished. The flood also produced enormous losses as regards cultural institutions and historical objects. Over 300 objects, not including movables, were affected; fortunately, the most valuable immovable objects and collections of movables were not damaged. Upon the basis of observations made at the time of the flood, the author presents conclusions concerning current and long-range undertakings, organisation, and changes in legal regulations aiming at minimalising losses of cultural property in cases of similar calamities.

Robert Fuchs
Zwalczanie szkodników na zaatakowanym materiale bibliotecznym i archiwalnym - porównanie starych i nowych metod. Nowoczesne metody badawcze do porównania zmian w strukturze molekularnej - tłumaczył Bogusław Radis, s. 63-80

The Combating of Pests in Library and Archival Material - a Comparison of Old and New Methods.Modern Research Methods for Collating Molecular Structure Changes

Prof. Dr. Robert Fuchs presents the outcome of long-term research conducted by the Chair of the Conservation and Restoration of Books, Graphic Works and Book Paintings at Fachhochschule Koln on the impact of agents applied universally for "freeing" historical library and archival objects from pests: microorganisms and insects. Particular attention is drawn to the influence of those agents upon changes which they produce in historical objects, often fatal and leading to irreversible damage. Furthermore, the microorganisms are not eliminated to the expected degree.
The author proposes to replace chemical agents combating mould, bacteria, and insects by natural climatic factors hampering their further growth, and to apply anti-insect methods which do not damage objects. He recommends emphasis upon the necessity of retaining cleanliness and suitable storage conditions. Finally, importance is ascribed to the protection of people - storehouse workers, restorationers, and users, an issue which is often completely ignored.

Zbigniew Prus-Niewiadomski (1922-1997) - Aldona Kruszyńska, s. 81-82

V Sympozjum Wiślane pt. "Zabytki Kociewia" - Roman Klim, s. 83-86

"Biuletyn Konserwatorski Województwa Białostockiego"- Marian Paździor, s. 87-90