ARTYKUŁY / ARTICLES
Ku pluralistycznej filozofii konserwatorskiej XXI wieku, s. 1-4
Towards a Pluralistic Conservation Theory of the Twenty First Century, pp. 1–4
Access to the UNESCO Convention on World Heritage, passed in 1972, by numerous states of the Far East and their declarations of cultural property to be placed on the World Heritage List, disclosed a profound divergence between two philosophical-methodological approaches to conservation and the protection of historical monuments.The European conception, based on the authenticity of material substance, is derived in a straight line from the Roman–Christian cult of the holy relics, and is applied in the case of permanent building material and a mild climate. Only in those conditions, and with suitable conservation, can an architectural object last for centuries and millennia in its unaltered material structure.The Far Eastern conception is based exclusively on the authenticity of form, function and tradition, and originates from a belief in reincarnation. It is employed for unstable material (soil, timber, bark, and bast) and in an extremely aggressive climate. Solely thanks to the principle of a systematic exchange of used elements or whole fragments of abuilding could the old architecture of the Far East, at times boasting of a more than a thousand year-old lineage, survive to our times in a form close to the original.It must be stressed that both contradictory philosophies possess certain universal elements and made undeniable contributions to the protection of cultural heritage.If during the discussion waged by the East and the West we opt for mutual respect for our philosophies, recognising their great although different merits for the protection of cultural property and, at the same time, indicate the fact that the development of science and technology permits and suggests the retention of original substance in all those instances when it is possible, then we shall be taking an important step towards a universal conception, albeit endowed with a truly pluralistic character.
Kilka refleksji na marginesie dotychczasowych prac i dyskusji nad projektami nowej polskiej ustawy o ochronie dóbr kultury, s. 5–11
Several Reflections on the Margin of Heretofore Works and Discussions on Projects for a New Polish Law on the Protectionof Cultural Property, pp. 5–11
The establishment of a suitable law on the protection of cultural property is a difficult and laborious undertaking. It is not surprising, therefore, that heretofore work on its successive projects and accompanying debates did not end with full success. Nonetheless, their results proved to be of use, since they mobilised the concentration of the conservation milieu, stimulated the activity of the authorities, and, predominantly, made it possible to formulate numerous problems calling for legal regulation. Upon this basis, the author considers a number of motifs which, in his opinion, are of particular importance for further work and discussions on the law. Some of his reflections concern the legislation technique alone, e. g. the division of issues requiring legal regulation into those qualified for statuary solutions and those which can be resolved by means of acts of a lower rank. Moreover, the author postulates a combination of the crucial points of the statute with the resolutions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. Further themes of the reflections refer to fundamental conceptual and terminological questions, whose definition will exert a decisive impact on the manner in which the law in question is to function. Within this range, the author places in the foreground a conceptual and terminological distinction of two autonomous albeit closely overlapping spheres, chosen from all the ventures serving the preservation of cultural heritage. They include legal–administrative efforts, which can be implemented solely by state bodies upon the basis of rights due exclusively to them, and a sphere of all other activities, whose realisation does not call for such privileges, but only for suitable professional qualifications. Furthermore, the author draws attention to the fact that heretofore studies and discussions ignored a number of essential details. By way of example, they did not introduce an extremely important entry proclaiming that the protection of cultural heritage is of great significance for public interest. The article ends with a call for the continuation and expansion of works and debates on the future shape of the statute.
Aktualne problemy prawne i finansowe ochrony zabytków w Polsce w dobie przekształceń ustrojowych państwa, s. 12–18
Current Legal and Financial Problems of the Protection of Historical Monuments in Poland during the SystemicTransformations of the State, pp. 12–18
The presented reflections encompass an analysis of the current Polish model of the protection of cultural heritage against the backdrop of a reform of administrative and territorial structures, introduced at the beginning of 1999. In a systemic interpretation, the question of dividing the tasks of the protection of historical monuments is associated with the establishment of two new units of territorial self– –government (the county and the voivodeship) and a reform of the government administration at the voivodeship level, due to which the post of the voivodeship conservator of historical monuments, embedded in Polish tradition, was expanded under the supervision of the voivode by imposing executive tasks carried out, on the one hand, ex lege in the name of the voivode, who acts as an administrative organ; on the other hand, the conservator was granted distinct material–legal tasks, which he performs as a separate organ. In turn, the rank of the General Conservator of Historical Monuments became a political function, whose holder could become the object of decisions made by the ruling coalition; as a result, changes concerning the holder of this post are possible at any given time. Consequently, the function in question is not affected by the impact of civil service legislation norms. The author goes on to analyse other determinants of the present–day Polish model of the protection of historical monuments, such as the state of social awareness, the disintegration of legislation concerning the protection of cultural heritage by means of a separation of issues dealing with the protection of cultural property from the museum system, as well as a gradual "archaisation" of legislation pertaining to the protection of cultural property, whose basic resolutions date back to 1962, the financial conditions of the state, public–legal unions, i. e. units of territorial self–government and society, the subjectivisation of units, a reform of the administrative court system, etc. The above–presented text was read in 1999 at a ceremonial inauguration of the Little Poland Cultural Heritage Days, held in a manor house in Modlnica near Cracow, and organised by regional self–government authorities.
Piotr S. Szlezynger
Problemy badawcze i konserwatorskie obronnego kościoła parafialnego p.w. św. Jana Chrzciciela w Korzkwi, s. 19–31
Research and Conservation Problems of the Defensive Parish Church of St. John the Baptist in Korzkiew, pp. 19–31
The locality of Korzkiew, 13 kms. to the north of Cracow, is situated in the valley of the small river of Korzkiewka, atributary of the Prądnik, and lies within the range of the Ojcowski National Park. Together with the rivulet, the valley creates meanders around wooded hills. One of the latter is the site of the parish church of St. John the Baptist, while the opposite hillock — some 200 metres away — is topped with the ruins of a knight’s castle. The church and castle continue to comprise the architectural–landscape dominants of the valley, just as they did at the time of their erection, i.e. in the first quarter of the seventeenth century. In 1623, the owners of Korzkiew founded a brick church, completed in 1630 and consecrated in 1640. Those dates were determined by the author upon the basis of visitations conducted by the bishops of Cracow during the seventeenth century. The oriented church is built on the plan of a rectangle, with a presbytery closed by means of a semi–circular apse. To the north, the nave is adjoined by a sacristy and a treasury, based on the plan of a square, with a gallery on the storey. The spatial arrangement of the church combines elements of mediaeval architecture (the traditional plan with a tower added to the west, massive walls with scarps) and modern design (the semi–circularly closed presbytery, the cross–barrel vault, and the detail). A characteristic feature of the Korzkiew church is its defensive character. Extant embrasures are situated over the treasury and the sacristy, in the tower, and in the attic gallery above the nave and the presbytery (where they were discovered by the author). The castellation of a sacral building was dictated by its location in a raised terrain above the valley and a trade route from Silesia, running opposite the castle; the spanned edifices defended both the valley and the track. The church in question called for urgent conservation, predominantly the drying of its damp walls. In the future, it is recommended to embark upon adaptation, which will accentuate the defensive properties of the monument.
Niezwykłe losy obrazów z kolekcji lubiąskiej, s. 33–38
The Unusual History of Paintings by Michael Willmann from the Lubiąż Collection, pp. 33–38
The author describes the circumstances of the origin and later history of canvases by Michael Willmann, an outstanding Baroque painter from Silesia. In 1656–1702, Willmann executed a series of several score religious paintings, commissioned by the Cistercian abbots in Lubiąż. Subsequently, they comprised part of the outfitting of the local church.The rank of the collection was not impaired either by the secularisation of monastic property in 1810, the adaptation of the abbey for the purposes of a field hospital for Russian soldiers during the Napoleonic campaign, nor the opening of a hospital for mentally ill Prussian aristocrats. The beginning of the end of the Lubiąż collection dates back to 1936, when the abbey was converted into an armament factory. In 1940, the church was closed in connection with the production of aeroplane engines and secret preparations for the production of the V1 and V2 missiles.When in 1943 armament enterprises from Berlin were evacuated to Lubiąż, Günter Grundman, the then conservator of Wrocław, decided to rid the church of its outfitting, including about 40 paintings by Willmann. After the war, the canvases were stored in Szklarska Poręba, administered by Soviet military authorities. From here, at the end of 1945, 30 paintings and 40 period frames were moved to a central storehouse in Paulinum Castle on Krzyżowa Mt. in the region of Jelenia Góra, never to return to Lubiąż. In 1952, an agreement signed between the Ministry of Culture and Art and the Warsaw MetropolitanCuria enabled 30 paintings and 22 frames to be transferred to Warsaw. The remaining objects, after much turmoil, found themselves in the National Museum in Wrocław and Warsaw.The article contains an extremely valuable catalogue of paintings by Michael Willmann from the monastic church in Lubiąż, and gives the title of a given canvas, a brief technical description, and information about its current whereabouts.
Technika Michaela Willmanna na przykładzie dwóch obrazów z lubiąskiego cyklu Męczeństw — Męczeństwa św. Piotra i Męczeństwa św. Pawła, s. 39–47
The Technique of Michael Willmann upon the Example of Two Paintings from the Lubiąż Martyrdom Cycle — The Martyrdom of St. Peter and The Martyrdom of St. Paul, pp. 39–47
The painting technique of Michael Willmann discloses the influence of the greatest Baroque masters — Rembrandt and Rubens. The style devised by the master from Lubiąż is sufficiently characteristic to render his canvases easily recognisable among the extensive heritage of the seventeenth century. Two paintings from the Lubiąż series — The Martyrdom of St. Peter and The Martyrdom of St. Paul, executed in 1661, are an example of mature artistic skill. The conservation of the canvases, conducted in 1998– 1999, made it possible to establish numerous interesting details of the Willmann technique. The paintings, 3,95 x 2,84 m. large, are executed on thick, hand–woven linen, with a simple weave. The canvases are stretched on wooden frames, bound with glutin glue and covered with red priming. The painter began with a shaded sketch, in which the blank spaces were marked with zinc white. The characteristic feature of the Willmann style is the fact that the initial drawing and red priming shine through many parts of the painting. The artist applied a perfectly mastered alla prima oil technique, consisting of wide brush strokes, whose traces are discernible in the thick paint layer. Some parts of the canvases were completed by means of glazing. The wooden frames of the compositions are richly embellished with painted marmorisation, gilt and silver plating.
Anna Dorota Potocka
Konserwacja obrazów Michaela Willmanna na przykładzie Męczeństwa św. Piotra oraz Męczeństwa św. Pawła — problematyka i zakres prac, s. 48–63
The Conservation of The Martyrdom of St. Peter and The Martyrdom of St. Paul by Michael Willmann — Problemsand Range of Work, pp. 48–63
The conservation and restoration of the paintings and frames of The Martyrdom of St. Peter and The Martyrdom of St. Paul by Michael Willmann took place in 1998–1999. The paintings in question were commissioned by Arnold Freiberger, the Cistercian abbot of the monastic church in Lubiąż, and were one of the first from a great cycle of several score canvases executed by this artist. Conservation was conducted in situ , in the gallery of the church of St. Stanisław Kostka in Warsaw, where the paintings are kept since 1952. The fact that they are displayed in the church apse, where they frame the main altar, together with the large size (285 x 295 cm.) of the paintings meant that the fundamental goal of conservation was the restoration of the original aesthetic and religious merits. The successive task, connected with the considerable weight of the canvases and frames (more than 250 kg. each), consisted of reinforcing the mechanical resilience of the old duplication, which it was decided to keep. The ensuing work involved repair, total cleaning, and the supplementation of missing fragments of the paint layer. Taking into consideration the fact that at least three previous conservations had been carried out in the nineteenth and twentieth century, it was necessary to perform all the operations exceedingly carefully and after scrupulous studies and tests, to avoid damaging the objects or weakening their already undermined mechanical resistance. The removal of varnish and dirt from the surface of the paint layer was conducted gradually, and the entire process was controlled in UV light, in order not to excessively clean the extremely dry and, in places, baked paint. Retouches of the paint layer were limited to inevitable spots, so as not to lose the rubbings, incomplete painting and translucence, characteristic for the author. It was decided to conserve and restore the frames, with the exception of a reconstruction of missing elements of the carving.
Naleciałości na malowidłach ściennych i ich usuwanie, s. 64–68
Accretions on Murals and their Removal, pp. 64–68
The author discusses the nature of accretions on the surfaces of murals and their origin. He explains the manner in which accretions adhere to the surface of historical objects and lists ways of mechanical dry cleaning. The article also considers examples of methods of cleaning with fluids, taking into consideration the sensitivity of material to solvents, depending on the technology of production.
Zmiany wyglądu punktowań w malarstwie sztalugowym — bielenie powodowane przez niektóre białe pigmenty, s. 69–76
Changes in the Appearance of Dotting in Easel Painting — Milkiness Caused by Certain White Pigments, pp. 69–76
The milkiness of retouched blank spaces in easel painting constitutes a highly visible and relatively frequently observed change, which disturbs the aesthetic reception of a given work. In many cases, responsibility for its appearance should be placed on white pigments with photocatalytic properties, used for retouching. The author examined more than ten cases of milkiness by resorting to fluorescence and X–ray diffraction. The findings point to the presence of photoactive pigments: zinc white — zinc oxide, and titanium white — anatase titanium dioxide. Some of the registered changes came into being in the course of merely several years. Suitable information about the pigment composition of material used for retouching could enable conservators to limit the risk of causing future changes consisting of milkiness. With this purpose in mind, the analysis encompassed up to twenty white paints and pigments applied in conservation retouches. Many of them, due to their pigment composition, could produce changes that assume the form of milkiness and chalking.
Komputerowe wspomaganie analizy i odczytywania pisma, s. 77–84
Computer Assistance in the Analysis and Deciphering of Writing, pp. 77–84
The presented study deals with the method of a computer analysis of writing. The author proposes an example of the application of computer image analysis for the purpose of deciphering writing upon the example of an analysis of an inscription over the gate in Bierzgłowo Castle, executed in burnt ceramic. The studies were based on images obtained by means of high definition CDD cameras. Digital analysis and processing made it possible to correct perspective abbreviations and to make patterns of the letters, followed by their comparison by a graphic programme or one intended for this purpose (e. g. Pluskwa 5.0). Such an approach also facilitates computer supplementation of the missing elements of the letters, preceded by comparative analysis. Upon the basis of the presented examples of a computer analysis of writing it was found that: — the possibilities of an analysis of letters with the aid of computer studies render feasible the elimination of chance in deciphering letters, and facilitate an unambiguous interpretation of inscriptions; — systematic computer handling of analyses of this type aims at creating a lettering base, making it easier to interpret other inscriptions from the same historical period, etc. — digital archives of analyses results (e. g. CD–ROM) comprise a base for classical studies, publications or the continuation of research, without the necessity of taking successive photographs, which often prove harmful to the state of the objectĺs preservation (destruction of pigments, paper and fabric due to radiation).
Ślady polichromii na nagrobkach żydowskich z obszarudawnego powiatu olkuskiego, s. 85–92
Traces of Polychromy on Jewish Gravestones in the Former County of Olkusz, pp. 85–92
The gravestones (matsevahs) presented in this article come from Jewish cemeteries in Olkusz, Sławków and Pilica. The chronology of their origin dates from a period spanning from the mid-nineteenth century to 1941. As a branch of religious art, Jewish sepulchral art demonstrates direct similarity with sacral paintings in synagogues, with which it shares joint roots. It also developed a certain set of symbols depicted usually in the form of bas reliefs or reliefs. The bas relief was supplemented by totally original polychromy. Today, traces of colourful gravestone decorations are the only examples of unprofessional Jewish painting associated with sacral art. Vividness, sharp transitions and contrasting colour indicate a certain Oriental strain, which for centuries accompanied Jewish art. It would be useful to examine paint samples in order to determine their composition, types of priming, pigments and binders. Undertakings of this type, however, are costly and require group effort. Another worthwhile conception is a special questionnaire, which would include data concerning polychromy. Finally, it is worth postulating additional colour photographs for the purposes of inventories in those concrete cases when colours are visible. In rites and mythologies colour usually possesses, or possessed a strictly designated meaning, frequently not totally clear. Only a thorough study focusing on traces of polychromy on Jewish gravestones could provide us with (or bring us closer to) answers to the question concerning the extent to which aesthetic sensitivity of the past survived within "folk" art to our times. Hence the urgent need for pertinent publications, especially if we take into consideration the damage incurred to historical monuments by atmospheric conditions.
KOMUNIKATY I DYSKUSJE / COMMUNIQUES AND DISCUSSIONS
Bartłomiej Konarski, Ryszard Jabłoński
Zabezpieczanie obiektów budowlanych przed zawilgacanie ma skuteczność osuszania metodami iniekcyjnymi, s. 93–99
The Protection of Buildings against Recurring Dampness and the Effectiveness of Drying with Injection Methods, s. 93–99
The article accentuates the origin of the idea of "drying" buildings in Poland during the 1960s against a background of the special need for such methods. The very conception of drying was based on the premise that the main reason for dampness in the majority of buildings is the capillary upward motion of water in the walls. The authors of the presented article propose their own view concerning the mechanism of dampness in the greater part of edifices, and then assess studies on the effectiveness of various methods of drying
Refleksja na temat metod osuszania zawilgoconych budynków, s. 100
A Reflection on Methods of Drying Damp Buildings, p. 100
The author refers to the problem discussed in the communique on The Protection of Buildings against Dampness and the Effectiveness of Drying with Injection Methods. Attention is drawn to the fact that contemporary technological achievements and building industry have at their disposal methods and means for devising systems enabling effective and suitable water orientation.
KRONIKA / CHRONICLE
XII Zgromadzenie Generalne ICOMOS Meksyk 1999 — Bogusław Szmygin,
XII General ICOMOS Convention Mexico 1999 — Bogusław Szmygin, pp. 101–102
Wystawa „Historyczne mosty w Tczewie" — Jadwiga Kilim, s.
Exhibition: "Historical Bridges in Tczew" — Jadwiga Klim, pp. 103–104
III Sympozjum „Zabytki hydrotechniki w Polsce" — Roman Klim,
III Symposium on "Monuments of Hydraulic Engineeringin Poland" — Roman Klim, pp. 105–106
Barbara Kamińska–Lenard (1925–1999) — Lech Krzyżanowski, s.
Barbara Kamińska–Lenard (1925–1999) — Lech Krzyżanowski, pp. 107–108
Krystyna Michaela Walicka (1913–1999), siostra zakonna i konserwator
architektury — Wanda Puget, s. 109–110
Krystyna Michaela Walicka (1913–1999). Sister and Conservatorof Architecture — Wanda Puget, pp. 109–110
PIŚMIENNICTWO / WRITINGS
Adelheid Gräfin Eulenburg, Hans Engels, OstpreussischeGutshäuser in Polen. Gegenwart und Erinnerung, München 1992 — Ewa Korpysz, s. 111–113