Dwie historie Europy - czyli ugór podwójnie zaorany, s. 3-17
Geneza Ligi Narodów, s. 19-45
The second half of the twentieth century witnessed the emergence of technical
possibilities for a permanent organisation of relations between states. In this process, a
foremost role was played by the progress of technology, which encompassed various
improvement whose wide range included also military aspects. This fact intensified fears
and anxieties on the part of thinkers and politicians, and, subsequently, ever wider
social groups. The question of peace became an important and fashionable topic, especially
for leftist sociopolitical movements. The pacifists appeared on the scene, popularising
the postulate of universal disarmament and the creation of permanent organisational
An important contribution to the process leading to the emergence of the League of Nations was made by multilateral conventions concerning both administrative issues (e. g. transport and communication) and political ones, starting with the Geneva convention of 1864, on the improvement of the plight of wounded and sick soldiers, to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, together with their prominent consequences. Jointly, they contributed to expanding the (rapidly developing) rule of law and popularised the ideas of international justice. This tendency is accentuated best by the Permanent Court of International Justice, established at The Hague. Another significant fact was the participation of 44 states in the debates of the Second Hague Conference, which passed several important conventions, including the convention on the pacific settlement of international disputes.
A large role in the internationalisation of public law was played by the growing activity of the United States. An inspiring function was fulfilled by debacles conducted by the opponents of the Monroe doctrine, frequent mediations concerning conflicts between South American republics, as well as controversies involving the powers. The rank of the United States grew considerably after the outbreak of the first world war. Universal rivalry for winning the favour of the United States stirred among the Americans a strong feeling of being capable of offering the world modern and universal solutions. Without the determination of the American delegation, headed by President Woodrow Wilson, it would have been impossible to create the League of Nations in the shape it was granted during the Paris Peace Conference. None of the European powers was interested in the establishment of the "Wilsonian" League.
The above statement does not alter the conviction that the birth of the League comprised the crowning of a process increasingly intense from the mid-nineteenth century on, and associated with the progressing internationalisation of economic life, followed by politics and culture. Emphasis should be placed on the fact that from the viewpoint of a programme, the premises of the League of Nations did not contain anything which had been said earlier and about which thinkers and politicians had not debated in the past. Nonetheless, it was devoid of direct evolutionary links and a historical precedent.
"Kwestia batumska" w polityce Ententy po I wojnie światowej, s. 47-63
The intention of the article is to present a brief period in the history of Batumi from
the end of 19181 to the middle of 1920, when it found itself under Entente control. The
enormous economic significance of the port of Batumi for the entire Caucasus meant that
both Batumi and Adjarian as a whole were seized at the end of 1918 by Great Britain,
interested in the exploitation of local raw materials. Due to the military, political, and
economic control over Batumi by the British, the latter exerted a dominating impact on
relations in Batumi to the end of June 1920. On the other hand, Italy and France enjoyed
slight influence, and unsuccessfully tried to place pressure on the British in order to
expand their activity, mainly economic, in Batumi itself.
The article discusses also plans for the creation of a "free state" and a "free port" of Batumi, considered during Allied conferences held in London and San Remo in February-April 1920. In connection with transformations of the situation in the Caucasus and neighbouring terrains, these projects remained in the domain of theory, and on 7 July 1920 Batumi was entrusted to Georgia. Despite the fact that the above mentioned plans were not implemented, their presentation is essential for a better understanding of the Caucasian and Russian policy pursued by Great Britain, the United States, France and Italy in the wake of the first world war.
Piotr Maciej Majewski,
Pierwszy krok ku Europie po Hitlerze. Idea czechosłowacka po Monachium, s. 65-80
Edvard Benes resigned from his post as President on 5 October 1938, and on 23 October he emigrated to Great Britain. In order to avoid a deterioration of the international position of the new Czechoslovakia he avoided public appearances, and on 2 February 1939 left for the Unites States to embark upon academic duties. Benes inaugurated his anti-German campaign on 15 March, after the annexation of Czechoslovakia by Hitler. His activity was based on Czechoslovak diplomatic outposts which did not recognise the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He was also supported by a group of intelligence officers, who on 15 March left the country to conduct a struggle against Germany abroad, and by organised structures of the Resistance, with whose intermediary Benes maintained secret contacts with the authorities of the Protectorate, in an attempt at a coordination of activity. Finally, Benes succeeded in establishing cooperation with influential Czech and Slovak emigre organisations in the United States. In this manner, up to the outbreak of the war, the former President of Czechoslovakia created a hinterland for the subsequent open battle against the Third Reich.
Reakcja amerykańska na masakrę w Katyniu, s. 81-83
Polska historiografia diejów Białorusi w latach 1945-1991, s. 85-102
W związku z problematyką sesji i publikacji Wojna domowa czy nowa okupacja? Uwagi, s. 103-109
Księża prefekci diecezji kieleckiej 1918-1939, s. 111-117
"Kwestia żydowska" w prasie katolickiej w Polsce w latach trzydziestych XX wieku, s. 119-123
Dzieci niemieckie w Polsce po 1945 r., s. 125-134